In Lundbeck Canada Inc. v. Ratiopharm Inc., 2009 FC 1102 (F.C. Nov. 23, 2009), the Federal Court provided guidance on the requirement to deal in good faith with the Patent Office during patent prosecution. Since 1996, s. 73(1)(c) of the Patent Act has required that applicants reply in “good faith” to any request by a patent examiner. However, until now the scope of that requirement had been somewhat uncertain.
Justice Mactavish took this opportunity to clarify that an applicant must not provide information that could mislead the Patent Office. The case involved a patent for a combination of drugs used in treating dementia. To meet the requirement of non-obviousness, it was necessary to show that this combination of drugs led to a result that was new and unexpected in light of the state of knowledge of researchers at the time. Lundbeck, in support of the patent, indicated to the patent agent that prior articles taught that this combination was ineffective. However, Lundbeck did not point out that one significant study (of which they were aware) stated that only certain subsets of the combinations in question were ineffective, but that others could be. Mactavish J. held that the omission of this information was misleading and thus a breach of the duty of good faith. In addition, Mactavish J. equated this obligation to the Patent Office with obligations to the court in an ex parte proceeding.