Supreme Court of Canada addresses important issues in Canadian Copyright Law

Justine Whitehead and Gina Demczuk -

On December 23, 2013, a unanimous Supreme Court of Canada issued its decision in Cinar Corporation v Robinson. The decision provides clarification on a number of important issues in Canadian copyright law, including (but not limited to): (i) the appropriate test for determining if a substantial part of a copyrighted work has been reproduced; (ii) when expert evidence in respect of substantial taking should be adduced in copyright infringement cases; and (iii) several issues in respect of the calculation of damages and accounting of profits.

The Supreme Court decision is the last word in a case that has its genesis in actions undertaken decades ago. Claude Robinson began developing an idea for a children’s television show, The Adventures of Robinson Curiosity (Curiosity), in the early 1980’s. He spent more than a decade after that trying to get the project developed. During this time, Robinson shared his work (which included detailed sketches, storyboards, scripts and synopses), with several of the individual and corporate defendants (including Cinar Corporation).

Continue Reading...

Bringing trademark infringement proceeding by application may have effect on damage award

On November 26, 2013, the Federal Court issued its decision in Trans-High Corporation v. Hightimes Smokeshop and Gifts Inc. The proceeding, which claimed trademark infringement, passing-off and depreciation of goodwill, was brought by the applicant, Trans-High Corporation (Trans-High) by way of a summary application to the Federal Court.  This option (which sees evidence confined to affidavit evidence, and no rights of discovery) was confirmed to be available by the Federal Court of Appeal in its 2011 decision in BBM Canada v. Research in Motion Limited. The respondent, Hightimes Smokeshop and Gifts Inc. (Hightimes Smokeshop), did not file any submissions in the proceeding or appear at the hearing.

In upholding the claims for trademark infringement and passing-off, the Court found that Hightimes Smokeshop had infringed Trans-High’s trademark “HIGH TIMES”, which has been registered in Canada since 1980 for use in association with magazines.  The Court found that Trans-High had tendered sufficient evidence to show a likelihood of confusion between its use of the mark in association with High Times magazine and website (with a focus on medical and recreational uses of marijuana) and Hightimes Smokeshop’s retail sale of marijuana-related paraphernalia and merchandise.  However, the Court declined to find depreciation of goodwill, citing insufficient evidence.   In particular, the Court noted that the evidence of volume of sales and depth of market penetration of magazines and related wares sold by Trans-High in Canada was limited, as was evidence in respect of the extent of advertising and publicity accorded to Trans-High’s HIGH TIMES trade-mark.  Further, there was little evidence of the degree of inherent or acquired distinctiveness of the HIGH TIMES trade-mark, and the products associated with the mark were confined to a specialized channel of trade.

Continue Reading...

The long reach of Quebec's consumer protection legislation

Catherine A. Jenner -

On October 31, 2013, the Supreme Court of Canada rendered three related decisions (Pro-Sys v. Microsoft, Sun-Rype v. Archer Daniels Midlandand Infineon Technologies AG c. Option Consommateurs). The cases dealt with the rights of indirect purchasers to join direct purchasers in a class action to recover damages resulting from an alleged conspiracy by the defendant companies to inflate the prices to dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) chips. These decisions are very significant even though the cases are at a preliminary stage and deal only with the procedural aspects of the class action rather than the actual liability of the defendants. For a discussion of the Competition Act  aspects of the decisions, see our colleagues’ post on The Competitor.

Our focus here is on the Quebec Consumer Protection Act (QCPA) aspects of the Supreme Court decision on the Infineon case and the serious implications it has for all retailers doing business with Quebec consumers over the internet, through mail order, or in any other remote manner. Quebec bricks and mortar businesses will be quite familiar with the QCPA, which strictly regulates consumer contracts. 

Continue Reading...

Beware of who you text!

A New Jersey court of appeal has moved texting liability to uncharted waters after ruling that a person who sends a text-message to a person who is likely to text back while driving, can be held liable for damages caused by that driver. The text-sender must, however, know or have special reason to know that the recipient will view the message while driving and thus be distracted by it. 

Continue Reading...

Court of Appeal clarifies - for utility the promise of the patent must be "clear and unambiguous"

Ryan Sheahan -

On July 24, 2013, the Federal Court of Appeal (FCA) issued its decision in Apotex Inc. v. Sanofi-Aventis, overturning a Federal Court decision invalidating Canadian Patent No. 1,336,777 (’777 Patent) - a patent owned by Sanofi claiming the active ingredient of the drug Plavix (clopidogrel bisulfate). This decision is the latest step in a lengthy history of proceedings between the parties, including an appeal to the Supreme Court of Canada (SCC), which held that the ’777 patent was valid. As that SCC decision was in the context of the Patented Medicines Notice of Compliance (PM(NOC)) proceeding, the finding was not (strictly speaking) binding on the Federal Court. It was still surprising that the Federal Court subsequently decided to invalidate the patent. The FCA decision points out the errors of the Federal Court and clarifies the law on the promise of the patent.

Continue Reading...

European Parliament approves legislation on Online Dispute Resolution

On March 12, 2013, the European Parliament approved legislation that will see the creation of an online dispute resolution platform for use in disputes between E.U. consumers and traders originating from the online purchase of goods and services.

Specifically, the online platform will allow a party to submit a complaint electronically, inform the respondent party about the complaint, and provide the parties with an electronic case management tool. Once the parties are in agreement, the online platform will transmit the complaint to the alternative dispute resolution entity that the parties have agreed to use

Continue Reading...

Applicants face significant hurdles in registering flavour and scent trademarks in the U.S.

Justine Whitehead  -

In a recent blog post, we noted that the new Bill C-56 would significantly expand the scope of a registrable trade-mark in Canada.  If passed, the list of items that could potentially be registered a trade-mark would include “a word, a personal name, a design, a letter, a numeral, a colour, a figurative element, a three-dimensional shape, a hologram, a moving image, a mode of packaging goods, a sound, a scent, a taste, a texture and the positioning of a sign.”

However, the nature of the evidence required to prove registrability is deliberately left vague in the proposed revisions, and a revised s. 32 would allow the Registrar to ask for any evidence deemed necessary to establish that a trade-mark is distinctive at the date of the filing of the application for registration. While Canadian standards would, of course, have to be developed, a recent precedential decision of the United States Patent and Trademark Office’s Trademark Trial and Appeal Board (TTAB) is of interest, as an illustration of the difficulties in proving the requisite acquired distinctiveness to register a scent or flavour trademark.

Continue Reading...

BC Court requires active personal injury plaintiff to divulge Facebook photos

David Elder & Robert Mysicka -

A recent decision by the British Columbia Supreme Court has led to yet another case of “Facebook Remorse” for a Plaintiff with an active social media presence.

The case also further confirms the trend in Canadian civil courts to require disclosure of “private” social media postings where relevant to the case at hand.

In Fric v. Gersham the Plaintiff, who is a recent law school graduate, is claiming damages resulting from injuries suffered in a motor vehicle collision that occurred in 2008. The action, which is scheduled to proceed to trial in May, 2013, involves claims by the Plaintiff of loss and damages, including pain and suffering, loss of amenities of life, past and future loss of earning capacity, and other damages alleged to have been caused by the Defendants, who were involved in the motor vehicle accident with the Plaintiff.

Continue Reading...

2011 in Review - Top 10 Technology & IP Law Developments

The arrival of 2012 marked the end of a year filled with numerous developments in technology and IP law. Taking a cue from the Canadian Communications Law blog, we’ve decided that this would be an excellent time to reflect on the past year and review some of its more notable developments. To that end, we’ve put together a list of the top 10 technology and IP law developments from the past year.

Without further ado, here are our picks for the top 10:

  1. Court of Appeal recognizes reasonable expectation of privacy in contents of work computer - In R. v. Cole, a teacher discovered with nude images of a student on his work laptop was found by the Ontario Court of Appeal to have a reasonable expectation of privacy with respect to his personal files on that laptop.
     
  2. No liability for defamation for basic hyperlinks, says Supreme Court - In a decision that came as a relief to bloggers, tweeters, webpage owners and other providers and hosts of internet content, the Supreme Court of Canada clarified in Crookes v. Newton that merely providing hyperlinks to defamatory content will not lead to liability for defamation.
Continue Reading...

Federal Court prevents Minister of Health from allowing sale of generic version of immunosuppressive drug MMF

Geoffrey North & Lindsay Gwyer -

In an application pursuant to the Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations, Hoffman-La Roche sought an order preventing the Minister of Health from issuing a notice of compliance to Apotex for the drug mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), an immunosuppressive drug used primarily in organ transplants, until after the expiry of Canadian Patent No. 1,333,285. Seeking early market entry, Apotex on the other hand alleged that the ‘285 patent was invalid on the grounds of lack of utility and obviousness.

Continue Reading...

Missing the Bull's-Eye - TARGET fails to get interlocutory injunction against use of registered trade-mark

Geoffrey North and Solene Murphy -

Target Brands Inc. v. Fairweather Ltd. 2011 FC 758

A recent decision by the Federal Court showed once again that there is a high threshold for the granting of interlocutory injunctions.

Pending final disposition of this action, Target sought an interlocutory injunction to restrain the Defendants (Fairweather) from operating a retail store in association with a trade-mark or trade name comprising TARGET or a bull’s-eye design, and from displaying, advertising or using the word TARGET or a bull’s-eye design to direct public attention to Fairweather’s business so as to cause confusion with Target’s business.  

Target, however, failed to convince the Court both that it would suffer irreparable harm if the injunction was not granted and that the balance of convenience favoured the granting of an injunction, and the motion was accordingly dismissed.

Continue Reading...

Federal Court of Appeal confirms that Eli Lilly's patent to atomoxetine is invalid for lack of utility

Geoffrey North and Edwin Mok

The Federal Court of Appeal recently released its decision in Eli Lilly and Company v Teva Canada Ltd, confirming the trial court’s finding that Canadian Patent No. 2,209,735 (the 735 patent), which claims a new use for an old medicine that has long been in the public domain (the use of atomoxetine for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in three of its manifestations among all age groups), is invalid. We reported the lower Court’s ruling in a previous blog.

This appeal raised three principle legal issues. Namely, did the Judge err by: (i) misconstruing the patent’s promise by finding an implicit promise that atomoxetine “will work in the longer term”; (ii) requiring too high a standard of proof for utility; and (iii) deciding that Lilly could not rely on the sound prediction of the utility of the invention because Lilly had not disclosed the factual foundation for that prediction in the 735 patent?

Continue Reading...

Ontario Court of Appeal holds that domain names constitute personal property

The Ontario Court of Appeal issued a landmark decision in Tucows.Com Co. v. Lojas Renner S.A. (2011 ONCA 548), finding for the first time that internet domain names constitute personal property. The Court ruled in favour of Tucows, a Canadian company, holding that it could bring a claim in Ontario for declaratory relief against a Brazilian company on the basis that a domain name registered to Tucows constituted intangible personal property located in Ontario.

Continue Reading...

Federal Court of Appeal refuses to set aside prohibition order even though untrue material allegations had been made in the invalid patent at issue

A recent decision of the Federal Court of Appeal represents a blow to generic pharmaceutical companies in their quest to seek compensation for the period of time that they were precluded from entering the market with a generic version of a drug as a result of an invalid patent and lengthy proceedings under the Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations (NOC Regulations).

In this case, although Pfizer was successful in thwarting ratiopharm’s initial attempt to invalidate Canadian Patent No. 1,321,393 (the ‘393 Patent) under the regime of the NOC Regulations, ratiopharm was subsequently successful in a second “kick at the can” by invalidating the ‘393 Patent in an impeachment action (as reported in a previous post), which allowed ratiopharm to market its generic version of Pfizer’s drug NORVASC (amlodipine besylate).

Continue Reading...

Federal Court grants rare motion to re-open patent infringement trial

Parties to a patent action often wonder after trial what the outcome would have been if they had just been able to locate that key piece of evidence they know is out there … somewhere …  What if, however, that evidence is actually located after the trial has concluded, but before judgment has been rendered?  That was the situation in Varco Canada Limited v. Pason Systems Corp., 2011 FC 467 and the question on motion before the Court was whether the trial should be re-opened in light of evidence that had been subsequently located.

Although there is a paucity of law in this regard, the Court stated that reopening a trial was a matter of broad discretion but one which must be exercised sparingly and cautiously.  As such, key factors which should be considered on such a motion include: 1) could the evidence, if it had been presented at trial, have had any influence on the result? (an inquiry as to materiality/relevance); 2) could the evidence have been obtained before trial by the exercise of reasonable diligence?; and 3) are there exceptional circumstances that would justify setting aside the “due diligence” test or at least reduce its overall importance in the exercise of discretion.

Continue Reading...

Apotex denied damages for the delay it experienced in bringing its generic version of the medicine lovastatin to market

In a recent decision in Apotex Inc. v. Merck & Co., Inc., 2010 FC 1264, the Federal Court denied Apotex damages resulting from the delay it experienced in bringing its generic version of the drug lovastatin to market as a result of Merck’s prohibition application.  This is an important decision which resolves an action commenced nearly 10 years ago and will provide other pharmaceutical companies involved in similarly long-lasting litigation with insight into the scope of section 8 in the 1993 version of the Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations (NOC Regulations).

Both current and past versions of section 8 of the NOC Regulations purport to permit a company whose product has been kept off of the market due to a prohibition application to recover damages from the applicant for any loss resulting from the delay. Although Apotex’s statement of claim was filed in 2001, subsequent to significant amendments in 1998, the Court determined that the 1993 version of the NOC Regulations would apply. Section 8 was amended again in 2006 and 2010 and, as a result, will remain ripe for further litigation as to its interpretation. In any future disputes, it will be useful to note the preference demonstrated by the Court in this case for textual interpretations of the NOC Regulations’ technical provisions.

This case was heard contemporaneously with another case which we have discussed here

Continue Reading...

Federal Court finds Apotex infringed Merck's product-by-process patent for Lovastatin

In Merck & Co. Inc. v. Apotex Inc., the Federal Court found Apotex to have infringed Merck’s Canadian Patent No. 1,161,380 (‘380 Patent), a product-by-process patent for the medicine lovastatin.

In arriving at its decision, the Court addressed key questions regarding standing, infringement and patent validity. The decision provides an interesting example of a plaintiff’s successful use of DNA and circumstantial evidence in establishing two separate sources of infringement. In addition, readers should take note of the Court’s finding that a pre-existing process will invalidate a product-by-process patent only where it necessarily produces the relevant product.  

Continue Reading...

Federal Court refuses to award summary judgment for alleged infringement of copyright in builder's plans and design

The Federal Courts Rules provide a summary judgment procedure that allows a party to prevent claims or defences that have no chance of success from proceeding to trial. Although the summary judgment procedures were amended a year ago, a recent decision of the Federal Court demonstrates that summary judgment is still only granted in the most appropriate cases.

In Concept Developments Ltd. v. Webb, the plaintiff (Concept), a designer and builder of homes, brought a motion for summary judgment against the defendants, Mr. and Mrs. Webb, alleging infringement of its registered copyright in the plans and design of one of its model homes. The Webbs had apparently viewed Concept’s model home, but disliked Concept’s quoted price to build the house, so they subsequently took their business to another home building company (High Grade). According to the facts (which had not been fully established), the Webbs showed Concept’s model home design to High Grade and requested something similar for their house, albeit with some modifications. The Webbs then drew up what they wanted, gave that drawing to High Grade, and the house was subsequently built as desired. Concept claimed $124,000 for its direct loss from not building the home, as well as $40,000 for intangible loss. 

Continue Reading...

Supreme Court of Canada finds Patented Medicine Prices Review Board has jurisdiction over price of Thalomid in Canada

Geoffrey North & Catherine Newnham

The Supreme Court of Canada released a decision on January 20, 2011 in Celgene Corp. v. Canada (Attorney General), 2011 SCC 1 that may have a chilling effect on the availability of medicines under Health Canada’s Special Access Program (SAP).

The SAP

Most medicines are sold in Canada after Health Canada has satisfied itself as to the medicine’s safety and effectiveness, and has issued a notice of compliance (NOC) to the drug’s manufacturer. However, where Health Canada has not granted a NOC for a medicine, or where a manufacturer has not yet applied for one, medicines may in certain cases be sold to medical practitioners through an alternate route – the SAP – a program that allows access to drugs for the treatment of “serious or life-threatening conditions where conventional therapies have failed, are unsuitable, or are unavailable either as marketed products or through enrolment in clinical trials”.There is no limit on the period of time that a manufacturer may supply a medicine under the SAP, nor is there a limit on the volume of sales that can be made pursuant to the SAP.The manufacturer is simply authorized to sell the medicine for use by the specific patient or clinical trial identified in a special request, if Health Canada approves the request for sales pursuant to the SAP.

Continue Reading...

Federal Court of Appeal upholds the Data Protection Regulations and its guaranteed eight-year period of market exclusivity for "innovative drugs"

The Federal Court of Appeal has upheld the validity of section 30(3) of the Food and Drugs Act and section C.08.004.1 of the Food and Drug Regulations (known as the Data Protection Regulations) in its decision in Apotex Inc. v. The Minister of Health, 2010 FCA 334

The Data Protection Regulations (DPR) were designed to clarify and implement Canada’s obligations under the data protection provisions of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the Agreement on Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). The DPR introduced a guaranteed period of market exclusivity of at least eight years for manufacturers of “innovative drug[s]”.  More particularly, the DPR prohibits a generic manufacturer seeking a notice of compliance (NOC) for a new drug “on the basis of a direct or indirect comparison  between the new drug and an innovative drug” from filing a New Drug Submission (NDS) “before the end of a period of six years after the day on which the first notice of compliance was issued to the innovator in respect of the innovative drug”.  In addition, the DPR prohibits the Minister of Health from issuing a NOC to a generic drug manufacturer “before the end of a period of eight years after the day on which the first notice of compliance was issued to the innovator in respect of the innovative drug”. Thus, generic drug manufacturers cannot obtain approval for their generic drug until the period of market exclusivity of the innovative drug has expired, even where there is no patent protection for that drug.

Continue Reading...

Federal Court confirms that it will not set aside default judgment lightly

A recent decision of the Federal Court emphasizes that defendants bear a significant burden in setting aside default judgments that arise because the  defendant has simply failed to file a statement of defence within the allotted period of time.

In Molson Canada 2005 (An Ontario General Partnership) and Coors Brewing Company v. Drake J. Beachamp, the defendant was the owner and operator of a leather retail business, selling purses, belts, belt buckles and wallets from kiosks at shopping malls and special events.  Molson commenced an action against the defendant, claiming that he sold counterfeit product bearing its unauthorized trademark.  The defendant failed to file a statement of defence, and default judgment was accordingly granted against him.  The judgment ordered the defendant to deliver up all counterfeit goods, and also ordered that general damages, punitive damages, and costs be paid to Molson.

Continue Reading...

The price of inaccuracy: Federal Court awards first damages for PIPEDA breach

David Elder -

This week, the Federal Court of Canada made its first damage award ever under the 10 year old Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA), awarding damages to a businessman in connection with the provision of inaccurate credit information by a credit reporting agency -- despite a failure to prove actual losses arising from the breach.

While the quantum of the damages awarded in Nammo v. Transunion of Canada Inc., was a modest $5,000 plus costs, the case establishes several important principles respecting the interpretation of PIPEDA and the availability of damages for humiliation stemming from a violation of the Act.

Continue Reading...

Health Canada has released its statistical report for 2009 on the Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations and Data Protection provisions of the Food and Drug Regulations

Geoffrey North

Health Canada has released its statistical report for 2009 in respect of the administration of the Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations (the PM(NOC) Regulations) and data protection provisions of the Food and Drug Regulations. These statistics provide interested parties and policy makers alike with information concerning the effects of Canada’s IP regime on therapeutic medicines.

The PM(NOC) Regulations are designed to balance the competing interests of effective patent enforcement over new and innovative medicinal drugs against the timely entry of lower priced generic competitors. The Food and Drug Regulations prescribe that innovative drugs are to receive an eight year guaranteed minimum period of market exclusivity (data protection provisions). Together, these measures ensure a minimum period of protection for medicinal drugs while maintaining a reasonable ceiling on the maximum protection available.

Continue Reading...

Federal Court of Appeal refuses a patent to a compound already the subject matter of product-by-process patent

On October 20, the Federal Court of Appeal put an end to the disparity in the jurisprudence surrounding whether a patentee could obtain a patent to a medicine subsequent to obtaining a patent to a process for producing the medicine by dismissing Bayer’s appeal in the case of Bayer Schering Pharma Aktiengesellschaft v. The Attorney General of Canada. The case stems from May 2008, when the Commissioner of Patents refused to grant Bayer a patent to a pharmaceutical compound per se because a previous patent had already been issued to it for the same compound when made by a particular process (product-by-process patent).  After Bayer’s appeal to the Federal Court was dismissed, it appealed to the Federal Court of Appeal.

Continue Reading...

How much money is privacy worth?

According to two recent Federal Court decisions, privacy – though protected by the law - is not worth that much money when it comes to actual damage awards.

While most privacy complaints are resolved through the Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada, some cases are litigated in court with plaintiffs hoping to receive monetary compensation for privacy violations. Two such cases are Randall v. Nubodys Fitness Centres, 2010 FC 681 (CanLII) and Stevens v. SNF Maritime Metal Inc. 2010 FC 1137 (CanLII).

Continue Reading...

Dedication of Merck Patent Insufficient to Defeat Allegation of Double Patenting

A recent decision of the Federal Court expounded on the harm that can occur if two patents issue for the same invention.  The Honourable Mr. Justice O'Reilly effectively quashed any suggestion in prior case law that patentees could use public dedications to overcome the effects of double patenting, which would otherwise allow them to extend their monopoly.

In Merck & Co. Inc. v. Canada (Health), Merck brought an application under the Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations (SOR/93-133) (the NOC Regulations) seeking an order prohibiting the Minister of Health (the Minister) from issuing a notice of compliance (NOC) to Apotex Inc. (Apotex) for the medicine dorzolamide, used in the treatment of glaucoma, until after the expiry of Canadian Patent No. 1,329,211 (the ‘211 Patent). 

Continue Reading...

Apotex succeeds in getting a NOC despite itself

Geoffrey North

A recent Federal Court decision highlighted the differences in prohibition proceedings under the Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations (the NOC Regulations) and impeachment actions under the Patent Act.  It is yet another example of how every case is to be determined on the specific evidence adduced before the Court.

In Eli Lilly Canada Inc. v. Apotex Inc, the Court dismissed Eli Lilly’s application under the NOC Regulations for an order prohibiting the Minister of Health (the Minister) from issuing a notice of compliance (NOC) to Apotex in respect of the medicine atomoxetine until after the expiry of the ‘735 Patent.  However, the dismissal was based on mootness alone, as the Court would have allowed the application had it not invalidated the ‘735 Patent entirely in a related impeachment action brought by Novopharm.

Continue Reading...

Talking about your case on your blog? You may have just waived privilege

On October 22, 2010, an American magistrate judge ruled that a plaintiff suing Universal Music Corp. for improperly sending a takedown notice under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) waived a number of heads of attorney-client privilege by discussing the details of her legal case by email and on a blog.

In Lenz. v. Universal Music Corp, the plaintiff claimed damages and attorneys' fees as a result of Universal Music Corp.'s filing of an allegedly fraudulent DMCA take-down notice seeking to have a home video of the plaintiff's child dancing to a copyrighted song removed from YouTube.

Continue Reading...

CEPLENEĀ® not an "innovative drug" under the Data Protection Provisions of the Food and Drug Regulations

Epicept Corporation v. The Minister of Health and Canadian Generic Pharmaceutical Association (Intervener)

The Federal Court recently dismissed Epicept Corporation’s (Epicept) application for judicial review of a decision of the Minister of Health (the Minister).  The Minister had decided that Epicept’s drug product CEPLENE® (histamine dihydrochloride), which is used for remission maintenance therapy in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia, was not an “innovative drug” pursuant to subsection C.08.004.1(1) of the Food and Drug Regulations (the Regulations).  This meant that the drug was therefore not able to receive the benefit of a period of market exclusivity under the data protection provisions of the Regulations.  Epicept’s application sought to reverse the Minister’s decision.

Continue Reading...

Defendant granted discovery of Plaintiff's Facebook and MySpace profiles

A judge of the Supreme Court of New York State has recently held that information voluntarily placed on Facebook and MySpace pages are discoverable, and that doing so would not violate the plaintiff’s right to privacy.

The plaintiff, Romano, claimed that she sustained permanent injuries as a result of an accident and also that she could no longer participate in certain activities and her enjoyment of life was affected.  As part of its defense, the defendant brought a motion to obtain complete access to the plaintiff’s current and historical Facebook and MySpace pages and accounts on grounds that the plaintiff has uploaded certain information that would be inconsistent with her claims concerning the extent and nature of her injuries.

Continue Reading...

BlackBerry and Facebook - the Future of Electronic Service?

An Ontario Superior Court Justice has allowed the use of Facebook as a valid method for the service of court documents.  In a paternity suit where the mother could not find the father except on Facebook, Justice Cheryl Robertson allowed the mother to serve the father in a message over Facebook.  Justice Robertson believes that in today’s connected world, electronic service is the next logical step for the delivery of documents which may otherwise be undeliverable.

Since the Rules of Civil Procedure allow for substituted service when regular service is impractical, Justice Robertson argues that electronic means of service provide a practical solution. E-service is even more useful in the context of family law cases where litigants may be trying to avoid being found in anticipation of child support claims. In a paper she presented earlier this month, Justice Robertson points out that e-service has several advantages over regular service including speed and cost efficiency. Furthermore the person who is serving the document will know immediately if they have sent the documents to the wrong email address or know if a user has been active in checking their Facebook page through their recent activity log. While the use of e-service is on the rise, the judiciary may be slow in adopting it, as many judges may be unfamiliar with different electronic tools. Despite this, Justice Robertson is optimistic that over time the benefits of e-service will win over even the most skeptical opponents.

Federal Court holds "business methods" patentable in Canada in decision over Amazon.com "one click" patent

Geoffrey North

In a decision reminiscent of the recent In re Bilski decision in the U.S., the Federal Court of Canada has found that patents relating to “business methods” can constitute patentable subject matter in the highly anticipated decision of Amazon.com v. The Commissioner of Patents.  In his decision dated October 14, 2010, the Honourable Mr. Justice Michael Phelan discusses differing laws and disparate judicial decisions respecting the patentability of “business method” patents across the globe, and is a necessary read for those wishing to implement a cogent global IP strategy.

Continue Reading...

Choice of Law Clauses: Court of Appeal applies Arthur Wishart Act to franchisees outside Ontario

In the recent case of 405341 Ontario Limited v. Midas Canada Inc., the Ontario Court of Appeal affirmed that the Arthur Wishart Act applies to franchisees outside Ontario where parties choose Ontario law to govern their franchise agreement. Stikeman Elliott partner Wesley Ng provides more comprehensive coverage of the case in a Slaw column published today.

Eli Lilly patent for atomoxetine for use in treating ADHD invalid for lack of utility

Novopharm Ltd. v. Eli Lilly and Company 2010 FC 915

Novopharm Limited (now known as Teva Canada Limited but hereafter referred to as Novopharm) sought a declaration under s. 60(1) of the Patent Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. P-4 that Eli Lilly and Company’s (Lilly’s) Canadian Patent No. 2,209,735 (the ‘735 Patent) was invalid and void. The ‘735 Patent claimed the use of the medicine atomoxetine for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in three of its manifestations among all age groups (children, adolescents and adults). The ‘735 Patent did not claim the compound atomoxetine but only its use to treat ADHD.

Continue Reading...

Quia timet counterclaim allowed in the context of an action for a declaration of non-infringement

Apotex Inc. v. H. Lundbeck A/S, 2010 FC 807

The generic pharmaceutical manufacturer Apotex Inc. (Apotex) commenced an action seeking declarations of invalidity and non-infringement with respect to Canadian patent no. 1,339,452 (the ‘452 patent), owned by H. Lundbeck A/S (Lundbeck),  relating to the medicine escitalopram.  During the course of these proceedings, Apotex brought a motion for an order striking Lundbeck’s counterclaim, or, in the alternative, requiring that Lundbeck provide security for costs.

Lundbeck’s counterclaim was in the nature of a quia timet action on infringement (essentially an injunction to restrain threatened and imminent patent infringement that has not yet commenced). While Lundbeck admitted that such action would be improper and subject to being struck if brought as an independent action, it argued that its counterclaim should be saved and allowed to proceed on the basis that it was brought in response to an action seeking a declaration of non-infringement. If the counterclaim was permitted to proceed, Lundbeck further argued that it should not be required to post security for costs or, in the alternative, that the amount requested by Apotex was unreasonable.

Continue Reading...

Quebec Court of Appeal upholds right to privacy in unreasonable surveillance case

Compagnie d’assurances Standard Life c. Tremblay, 2010 QCCA 933 (CanLII)

On May 11, 2010, the Quebec Court of Appeal issued a definitive judgment in support of privacy rights in the case of Standard Life v. Tremblay. Upholding the trial decision, the Quebec Court of Appeal maintained the damages awarded which included a punitive sum of $100,000.00 to the plaintiff Tremblay against Standard Life Insurance Company (Standard Life).

Continue Reading...

"Grave consequences" defence may be asserted against a generic in a section 8 action under the PM(NOC) Regulations

Apotex Inc. v. Shire Canada Inc., 2010 FC 828

In an action brought by Apotex Inc. (Apotex) to recover damages under section 8 of the Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations (SOR/93-133) (Regulations) in respect of the medicine modafinil, Shire Canada Inc. (Shire) brought this motion for leave to amend its statement of defence, alleging two new defences. Apotex opposed Shire’s motion, arguing that the proposed amendments did not disclose a reasonable defence and ought not to be permitted. The prothonotary struck out the first proposed amendment, finding that a defence based on the outcome of a separate infringement action to which Shire was not a party would be speculative and hypothetical, but permitted the second proposed amendment which alleged a “grave consequences” defence.

Continue Reading...

"Frozen Register" concept renders Janssen's disclaimer irrelevant

Janssen-Ortho Inc. v. Apotex Inc. , 2009 FC 650

This was a motion brought by Apotex pursuant to section 6(5)(b) of the Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations (Regulations) to dismiss Janssen’s prohibition application on the basis that it was “redundant, scandalous, frivolous, or vexatious or otherwise an abuse of process”.   The motion raised a unique issue which appears not to have been decided in any prior proceeding under the Regulations.   In particular, the issue was whether a generic manufacturer was required to respond to claims in a patent which changed as a result of a disclaimer filed by the innovator subsequent to service of the generic’s notice of allegation (NOA) and prior to the commencement of an application to prohibit the issuance of a notice of compliance (NOC).  Or, in the words of the prothonotary hearing the motion, “using a football analogy, does the field goal count if the goalposts are moved after the ball is in the air?”

Continue Reading...

Court finds AstraZeneca patent to esomeprazole (NEXIUM) invalid for lack of sound prediction and obviousness

AstraZeneca Canada Inc. v. Apotex Inc., 2010 FC 714

This was an application brought by AstraZeneca under the provisions of the Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations for an order prohibiting the Minister of Health from issuing a notice of compliance to Apotex for 20 and 40 mg esomeprazole magnesium tablets until after the expiry of Canadian Patent No. 2,139,653 (the ‘653 patent).  If successful on the application, this would have prevented Apotex from marketing a generic version of NEXIUM in Canada for treating conditions wherein a reduction of gastric acid secretion is required until May 27, 2014.  Apotex, on the other hand, sought early market entry by arguing that the ‘653 patent was invalid for lack of sound prediction, anticipation (or lack of novelty), and obviousness.

The ‘653 patent relates to an improved process for preparing highly optically pure esomeprazole, one of the enantiomers of the racemate omeprazole, that is stable against racemisation (i.e. recombination).  Claim 8 was the claim at issue and could be read as claiming a salt (e.g. magnesium) of esomeprazole having an optical purity of 99.8% or greater.  There was no provision as to utility (or use of the invention) in claim 8.  This was an important fact, as the Court noted that where the invention relates to a new compound, utility does not need to be included in the claim, so long as it is described in the description portion of the patent.  On the other hand, when the patent relates to a new use for an old, known compound, that new use must be set out in the claims.  In this case, claim 8 was not directed to a new compound; it was directed to a previously known compound having a particular purity.

Continue Reading...

Court of Appeal rejects Pfizer's alleged factual and legal errors and upholds invalidity of Pfizer's patent to NORVASC

Pfizer Limited V. Ratiopharm Inc. (2010 FCA 204)

Pfizer appealed from a decision of the Federal Court declaring Pfizer’s Canadian Patent No. 1,321,393 ( ‘393 Patent) relating to the medicine amlodipine besylate (NORVASC) invalid for obviousness. 

Amlodipine is a calcium channel blocker and anti-hypertensive compound, but had originally been formulated in the form of the maleate salt.  However, when problems with stability and processability arose during the regulatory approval process, Pfizer began to search for a different salt through an accepted process known as salt screening.  During this process, Pfizer tested seven other salts, and decided to proceed with the besylate salt.  Pfizer then filed a patent application directed to the besylate salt of amlodipine based on its alleged unique combination of properties that made it particularly suitable for preparing formulations of amlodipine.  This application subsequently issued as the ‘393 Patent. 

Continue Reading...

Conditions for a valid selection patent does not constitute an independent basis for attacking validity

Eli Lilly Canada Inc., Eli Lilly and Company, Eli Lilly and Company Limited and Eli Lilly SA v. Novopharm Limited (2010 FCA 197)

Eli Lilly, the plaintiff in a patent infringement action, was successful in appealing a decision of the Federal Court which had found Eli Lilly’s Canadian Letters Patent No. 2,041,113 (the ‘113 Patent) relating to the medicine olanzapine (Zyprexa) invalid on the basis that it was not a proper selection patent.  The core issue on appeal raised a single question: do the conditions for a valid selection patent constitute an independent basis upon which to attack the validity of a patent?

Eli Lilly had previously received a patent (the ‘687 Patent) in 1980 covering approximately 15 trillion thienobenzodiazapine compounds, the properties of which were said to be useful for treating mild anxiety and certain psychotic conditions.  Although olanzapine was encompassed within the scope of the ‘687 Patent, it was not specifically disclosed.  Following the issuance of the ‘687 Patent, Eli Lilly eventually ceased its studies on the compounds specifically identified in that patent, but began to synthesize seven new compounds, of which olanzapine was the most promising.
 

Continue Reading...

Court finds that invalid disclaimers invalidates the claims.

Shmuel Hershkovitz, Paradox Security Systems Ltd. and Pinhas Shpater v. Tyco Safety Products Canada Ltd.

This decision underscores the importance of filing proper disclaimers to patent claims.  Disclaimers may be filed with the patent office by a patentee after the issuance of a patent to unilaterally renounce or disclaim those portions of the claimed invention that were inadvertently included within the scope of the claims as a result of mistake, accident or inadvertence.  Disclaimers therefore have the effect of narrowing the scope of the claims (i.e. the area where competitors may not tread).  Disclaimers that attempt to broaden the scope of a claim are invalid.

In the present case, soon after the issuance on October 5, 1999 of Canadian patent number 2,169,670 (the ‘670 patent) relating to telephone line couplers used to connect electronic equipment to phone lines while providing electrical isolation, the appellant patentee Paradox Security Systems Ltd. (Paradox) sent a demand letter to the respondent Tyco Safety Products Canada Ltd. (Tyco) alleging  patent infringement.  Tyco denied all allegations of infringement and asserted that the ‘670 patent was invalid.  On October 6, 2003, Paradox filed a disclaimer to certain claims.

Continue Reading...

Federal Court restricts definition of "commercial activity" under PIPEDA

State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Company v. The Privacy Commissioner of Canada et al., 2010 FC 736

On July 9, 2010, the Federal Court of Canada restricted the scope of the definition of “commercial activity” under the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA), when it was asked to determine whether the provisions of PIPEDA apply to evidence collected by an insurer, on behalf of an insured, in a tort action.

Continue Reading...

Patent abstracts must be made available in both official languages

Picard v. The Commissioner of Patents and the Canadian Intellectual Property Office, 2010 FC 86

Frédéric Picard brought an application in the Federal Court under subsection 77(1) of the Official Languages Act (Act) against the Canadian Intellectual Property Office and the Commissioner of Patents claiming that patents and patent applications must be bilingual to meet the requirements of the legislation.  He sought an order requiring the Patent Office to make certain parts of patents and patent applications available in both official languages and a declaration of invalidity of all patents available in one official language only, to be suspended to allow the Patent Office to make the invalidated patent applications and patents available in both languages.  Justice Tremblay-Lamer found that the Patent Office had not met the requirements under section 44 of the Act relating to the duty of all federal institutions to take positive measures to foster “the full recognition and use of both English and French in Canadian society.”  She concluded that “the fact that patents exist only in one official language deprives Canadian who do not speak that language of information that is important in both legal and scientific terms.”  In considering the appropriate remedy for this violation, she acknowledged the cost associated with translating all patents and applications.  The Federal Court therefore ordered that the Commissioner must at least “make available an unofficial translation of the abstract of all patents he issues” to be in compliance with the Act.  While the Court was not prepared to require that all aspects of the patent be translated, abstracts will have to be prepared in both official languages.

Federal Court of Appeal upholds narrow claim construction but overturns decision re obviousness for combination patent

Bridgeview Manufacturing Inc. v. Duratech Industries International, Inc., 2010 FCA 188

Bridgeview Manufacturing Inc. (Bridgeview) and Highline Manufacturing Ltd. (Highline) brought an action against Duratech Industries International, Inc. (Duratech) et al. for infringement of claims 1, 2 and 4 of Canadian Patent No. 2,282,334 (the 334 patent) relating to bale processors, machines designed to disintegrate or break up large bales of straw, hay or other crop material.  Duratech denied infringement and counterclaimed alleging invalidity of the 334 patent.  The judge dismissed Bridgeview’s claim and allowed Duratech’s counterclaim, finding that the 334 patent was invalid for obviousness.  This was an appeal of that decision.

Continue Reading...

Federal court confirms requirement of patent specificity for listing patents on the patent register

Purdue Pharma v. The Minister of Health, 2010 FC 738

Purdue Pharma sought judicial review of a decision of the Office of Patented Medicines and Liaison (OPML) in which the OPML determined that one of Purdue’s patents (the 738 Patent) was not eligible for listing on the Patent Register maintained in accordance with the Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations (Regulations) in respect of the drug TARGIN.  TARGIN is a controlled-release drug in tablet form that contains two medicinal ingredients: oxycodone hydrochloride (a painkiller), and naloxone hydrochloride, which counteracts certain side effects of oxycodone.  The 738 Patent contemplates a controlled-release technology for delivering oxycodone, and contains 28 claims, none of which mention naloxone.  Claim 5 was particularly at issue, and claims, “A solid controlled release oral dosage form, comprising oxycodone or a salt thereof … an effective amount of a controlled release matrix … and … a suitable amount of a suitable pharmaceutical diluent …”

Continue Reading...

Federal court confirms decision to withhold designating notice of allegation as a confidential document

Pfizer Canada Inc. et al. v. Novopharm Limited et al., 2010 FC 668

Even though generic pharmaceutical companies invest significant time and funds into the preparation of notices of allegations (“NOA”s), the Federal Court has confirmed that such documents should remain available to the public and not be designated as confidential information under the terms of a protective order.

In an application under the Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations (the “Regulations”) in relation to the drug pregabalin, the Honourable Mr. Justice Crampton dismissed an appeal from a decision of Madam Prothonotary Milczynski dismissing a motion by Novopharm Limited (“Novopharm”), which sought a protective order designating, among other things, its NOA as confidential pursuant to Rule 151 of the Federal Courts Rules.

Continue Reading...

Double patenting issue must be considered at time of Hearing of Application under the PM(NOC) Regulations

Sandoz Canada Inc. v. Abbott Laboratories, 2010 FCA 168

The Federal Court of Appeal rendered a decision that will have important implications on the litigation strategy of pharmaceutical companies.

Although the Federal Court issued an order under the Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations (the “Regulations”) prohibiting the Minister of Health from issuing a notice of compliance (“NOC”) to Sandoz for its clarithromycin extended release 500 mg tablets until after expiry of the 266 patent (a decision appealed by Sandoz), Abbott also cross-appealed from this decision.  The court found that Abbott had failed to adequately respond to Sandoz’ allegation of invalidity with respect to double patenting of claim 22 of the 395 patent over the 541 patent.  Accordingly, Abbott sought that the court’s decision dismissing an order of prohibition in relation to the 395 patent be set aside.

Continue Reading...

Prothonotary dismisses Motion to Strike Res Judicita Pleadings from Statement of Defence in Impeachment Action

Apotex Inc. v. Pfizer Ireland Pharmaceuticals, 2010 FC 633

In an action commenced by Apotex to impeach Pfizer’s ‘446 patent relating to the drug Viagra (medicinal ingredient sildenafil citrate), Apotex brought a motion seeking to strike those portions of Pfizer’s statement of defence pleading res judicata and abuse of process.  The motion was surprisingly dismissed by the court.

Background

Apotex had previously sought to invalidate Pfizer’s ‘446 patent in proceedings commenced by Pfizer under the Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations (“Regulations”).  On September 27, 2007, however, Mr. Justice Mosley upheld the ‘446 patent, and granted an order prohibiting the Minister of Health from issuing a notice of compliance to Apotex.  This decision was upheld by the Federal Court of Appeal on January 16, 2009, and leave to appeal to the Supreme Court of Canada was not sought.

Continue Reading...

Revatio patent ruled invalid for lack of sound prediction and obviousness

Pfizer Canada Inc.  v. Ratiopharm Inc. and The Minister Of Health, 2010 FC 612

In an application under the Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations (“Regulations”), Pfizer sought an order prohibiting the Minister of Health (“Minister”) from issuing a notice of compliance (“NOC”) to Ratiopharm for a generic version of the drug REVATIO (containing the medicine sildenafil citrate (“sildenafil”) – the same medicinal ingredient contained in VIAGRA) until after the expiry of the 324 patent.  Ratiopharm alleged that the 324 patent was invalid for lack of soundly predicted utility, obviousness, and anticipation, and therefore that a generic version of REVATIO should immediately be allowed on the Canadian market for use in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension.  Ratiopharm was ultimately successful on the first two grounds.

Continue Reading...

Section 8 Damages under the PM(NOC) Regulations not available when patent subsequently invalidated in Impeachment Action

Apotex Inc. v. Syntex Pharmaceuticals International Inc. and Hoffman LaRoche Limited, 2010 FCA 155

Apotex was unsuccessful in its attempt to recover damages under section 8 of the 1993 version of the Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations (the “Regulations”) in relation to its naproxen slow release tablets. 

Background

In 1996, Syntex Pharmaceuticals International Inc. (“Syntex”) and Hoffman LaRoche Limited (“Roche”) were successful in obtaining an order under the Regulations prohibiting the Minister of Health (“Minister”) from issuing a notice of compliance (“NOC”) to Apotex with respect its naproxen slow release tablets until after the expiration of the 671 patent.  Apotex did not challenge the validity of the 671 patent at that time.  An appeal and cross-appeal from this decision was dismissed.  Apotex subsequently commenced an action seeking to impeach (invalidate) the 671 patent, and on April 19, 1999, the court found that Apotex’s formulation was non-infringing and that the 671 patent was invalid.  No appeal was taken from that judgment.

Continue Reading...

Confidentiality Order Appropriate to Conceal Subject-Matter of Novopharm's Abbreviated New Drug Submission

Novopharm Limited v. The Minister of Health, 2010 FC 566

Novopharm filed an abbreviated new drug submission (ANDS) for a generic version of a drug, and represented to the Minister of Health that the ANDS did not attract the application of the Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations (and therefore the requirement to address patents listed on the patent register thereunder), since the patents were added after Novopharm had purchased the Canadian Reference Products and completed its clinical studies.  The Minister disagreed however, and required Novopharm to address a specific patent listed on the patent register before it would issue a notice of compliance (NOC) allowing Novopharm to commence marketing its drug.  Novopharm took issue with this decision, and accordingly commenced an application for judicial review of the Minister’s decision.  The application identifies the patents and drugs at issue by letter (i.e. Drugs A and B and Patents X and Y) in order to maintain confidentiality over the drug submission.

Continue Reading...

Court questions expert's credibility in patent infringement finding

Weatherford Canada Ltd. et al. v. Corlac Inc. et al., 2010 FC 602

Justice Phelan of the Federal Court of Canada released a 119-page judgment in respect of Canadian Patent No. 2,095,937 (the “’937 Patent”) relating to a seal assembly combination designed to fix the problem of leaking stuffing boxes on rotary progressive cavity pumps – a problem that has troubled all the heavy oil producers since the early 1980’s.

The plaintiffs alleged that the defendants had been directly infringing the ‘937 Patent since at least 1999 as a result of manufacturing and selling drive systems for rotary oil well pumps that included the patented assembly for restraining oil leakage.  They also alleged the Defendants had induced and procured others including their customers to infringe the '937 Patent.

Continue Reading...

Bifurcation Order not appropriate in action involving patent infringement and breach of Competition Act

Garford Pty Ltd. v. Dywidag Systems International, Canada, Ltd., et al., 2010 FC 581.

The plaintiff, Garford, appealed from an order of a prothonotary allowing bifurcation (separate trials) of the issue of liability from the issues of damages or accounting of profits in an action alleging patent infringement and breach of the Competition Act.

Bifurcation orders are only allowed where the Court is “satisfied, on a balance of probabilities, that bifurcation is more likely than not to result in the just, most expeditious and cost-effective determination of the proceeding.” Factors taken into account when determining whether bifurcation is appropriate include:

(i) The nature of the action and whether issues for the first trial are relatively straightforward

(ii) the extent to which the issues proposed for the first trial are interwoven with those remaining for the second;

(iii) whether a decision from the first trial regarding liability is likely to put an end to the action altogether;

(iv) the extent to which the parties have already devoted resources to all of the issues;

(v) the possibility of delay;

(vi) any advantage or prejudice the parties are likely to experience; and

(vii) whether the motion is brought on consent or over the objection of one or more of the parties.

Continue Reading...

Drug-related patent held invalid for double patenting and anticipation, but not obviousness

Merck v. Pharmascience, 2010 FC 510 (Federal Court).

In a decision rendered May 11, 2010 under the Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations, Justice Hughes of the Federal Court of Canada found Canadian Patent No. 2,173,457 (the ’457 Patent) to be invalid, and accordingly dismissed an application by Merck which sought to prohibit the Minister of Health from issuing a notice of compliance to Pharmascience, allowing Pharmascience to market its generic version of the medicine finasteride for treating male pattern baldness.

Claim 5, a “Swiss-type” claim, was the only claim at issue and was construed by the court as claiming “the use of finasteride for the preparation of a medicament adapted for oral administration useful for the treatment of male pattern baldness in a person and wherein the daily dosage is about 1.0mg.”Although this claim in the corresponding European patent had been upheld by the UK Court of Appeal, counsel for Pharmascience, Stikeman Elliott LLP, was successful in invalidating claim 5 on two grounds: double patenting and anticipation.

Continue Reading...

Court disallows expert disbursements in patent case

Counsel should be prudent in determining when it is appropriate to retain experts and have them incur costs on your client’s behalf.

In a decision determining allowable costs of the respondent Pharmascience in a proceeding discontinued by the applicant Sanofi-Aventis under the Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations, an assessment officer sought to determine whether expert witness disbursements totalling $17,000 could be claimed in the circumstances.

The three part test for the allowance of expert disbursements requires that:

(1) The disbursement for an expert must be prudent and reasonable in the circumstances existing at the time it was incurred;

(2) The terms of engagement must not constitute a blank cheque; and

(3) The extent of reliance on the expert by the trial judge should be a factor.

As per the third part of the test, disbursements cannot be disallowed based solely on the fact that a matter is discontinued (and thus never heard by a judge), as this would require hindsight. However, they must be reasonably incurred in the circumstances.In this case, a majority of the experts’ fees were incurred prior to the initial case management conference to set a schedule for the exchange of evidence, and were not even alleged to have been incurred in support of an early motion to dismiss. As a result, given that the ultimate burden of proof rested with the applicant Sanofi, the experts’ fees were found to be premature and therefore not allowed.

Two courts rule on identity protection for online commentators

Courts in Nova Scotia and Ontario recently issued conflicting decisions on the ability of a plaintiff to compel a website to reveal the identities of online commentators.In both cases, the plaintiff in a defamation suit sought the identities of individuals who had posted allegedly defamatory comments to a website.In the Nova Scotia case, the court granted the order; in Ontario, the court refused it.The Ontario decision made it clear that such orders are not automatic – the court must be satisfied that there is a prima facie case for defamation, and must also weigh the public interest in disclosure against the freedom of expression and privacy interests of the parties. These issues were not addressed in the Nova Scotia decision.

Continue Reading...

Three things you (and your attorney) should know about DMCA notifications

The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) is an American statute that provides for the automatic takedown of counterfeiting materials posted on the Internet simply by sending a notification (a “DMCA Notification”) from the copyright holder to the website hosting the counterfeiting materials. While drafting and sending a DMCA Notification is easy as shooting fish in a barrel, this articles presents three important tips to avoid problems later in the DMCA-driven process.

  1. Don’t overreach: Avoid liability and “bad press” by making a serious effort to determine if the materials really are infringing… And that implies that you consider the possibility that the materials qualify under “fair use” before sending the DMCA Notification;
     
  2. Properly save a copy of the infringing materials prior to sending the DMCA Notification;
     
  3. Consider search engine optimization: Limit the impact of future infringements by creating legitimate content and making sure that your content is optimized in search engines.
Continue Reading...

SCC rejects doctrine of fundamental breach in context of exclusion clauses

In an important ruling arising out of a disputed public procurement process, the Supreme Court of Canada has unanimously rejected the doctrine of fundamental breach in the case of Tercon Contractors Ltd. v. British Columbia (Transportation and Highways), substituting a three-stage test of the enforceability of an exclusion-of-liability clause that considers (i) whether the clause actually applies to the type of breach that is alleged, (ii) unconscionability, and (iii) public policy.

However, before anyone celebrates the end of the ambiguity that has pervaded this part of Canadian law since the split decision in Hunter Engineering Co. v. Syncrude Canada Ltd., [1989] 1 S.C.R. 426, it must also be reported that the Court split five to four on the application of its new three-stage test to the facts. The distinction between the majority and minority reasons will be of interest to those drafting or negotiating exclusion clauses, particularly in the context of a request for proposals (RFP) or tendering process.

For more information on the case, see the following Stikeman Elliott Litigation Update of March 2010.

Federal Court examines "good faith" in patent prosecution

In Lundbeck Canada Inc.  v. Ratiopharm Inc., 2009 FC 1102 (F.C. Nov. 23, 2009), the Federal Court provided guidance on the requirement to deal in good faith with the Patent Office during patent prosecution. Since 1996, s. 73(1)(c) of the Patent Act has required that applicants reply in “good faith” to any request by a patent examiner. However, until now the scope of that requirement had been somewhat uncertain.

Justice Mactavish took this opportunity to clarify that an applicant must not provide information that could mislead the Patent Office. The case involved a patent for a combination of drugs used in treating dementia. To meet the requirement of non-obviousness, it was necessary to show that this combination of drugs led to a result that was new and unexpected in light of the state of knowledge of researchers at the time. Lundbeck, in support of the patent, indicated to the patent agent that prior articles taught that this combination was ineffective. However, Lundbeck did not point out that one significant study (of which they were aware) stated that only certain subsets of the combinations in question were ineffective, but that others could be. Mactavish J. held that the omission of this information was misleading and thus a breach of the duty of good faith. In addition, Mactavish J. equated this obligation to the Patent Office with obligations to the court in an ex parte proceeding.

Arizona Supreme Court finds metadata subject to public records request

On October 29, 2009, the Supreme Court of Arizona overturned the Court of Appeals’ decision in the e-discovery case of Lake v. City of Phoenix, 222 Ariz. 547, 218 P.3d 1004 (2009). It held that when a public entity maintains a public record in electronic format,then the electronic version, including any embedded metadata, is subject to disclosure under public records laws.

The public record request arose out of the underlying employment discrimination litigation between the city and David Lake, a Phoenix police officer, who sought the production of metadata associated with notes he suspected were backdated. The request was denied by the city, who contended that the metadata was not a public record.  The refusal was upheld on appeal.

Continue Reading...

Schuster v. Royal & Sun Alliance Insurance Company of Canada

An Ontario Court judge recently rejected Royal & Sun Alliance Insurance Co.’s bid to see a woman’s Facebook profile in a case where the woman was suing to recover for injuries suffered in a car crash. The judge stated that the plaintiff’s privacy would be respected unless the defendant could prove a legal entitlement to the ruling. The judge gave the defendant an opportunity to cross-examine the plaintiff to try to prove a legal entitlement, but refused to do anything further. This decision represents a slightly stronger stance towards privacy than the Leduc v. Roman case discussed in an earlier post

Continue Reading...

Federal Court of Appeal decision clarifies effects of partial waiver of privilege

On January 30, 2009, the Federal Court of Appeal (FCA) clarified the circumstances under which a partial waiver of privileged material can result in an implied complete waiver of privilege. The FCA's decision in Merck & Co. Inc. et al. v. Apotex Inc. et al. (2009 FCA 27) was an interlocutory decision in a patent infringement case.

The issue arose in the context of examination for discovery in respect of the patent dispute, which relates to the manufacture of a drug called lovastatin. This drug is produced by certain micro-organisms, and the production of lovastatin from the Aspergillus terreus micro-organism is covered by a Canadian patent owned by the plaintiff, Merck & Co. Inc. (Merck). Merck had apparently carried out some tests, for the purpose of the litigation, to improve its understanding of the process used by the defendants. As the tests were conducted for the purpose of the litigation, information about the tests qualified for protection under the litigation privilege. The purpose of the litigation privilege is to create a zone of privacy in relation to pending or apprehended litigation, to facilitate investigation and preparation of a case for trial by the adversarial advocate.

Continue Reading...

Cross-examination of plaintiff allowed on supplementary affidavit of documents regarding content of Facebook profile

Leduc v. Roman, 2009 CanLII 6838 (Ont. S.C.J.).

Alex Colangelo

Existence of Facebook profile allowed for inference that private portion of profile may contain relevant material

The parties in this case were involved in a motor vehicle accident in 2004. The plaintiff subsequently initiated an action claiming that the defendant’s negligence resulted in a lessened enjoyment of life. Sometime after Mr. Leduc’s examination for discovery, defence counsel discovered that the plaintiff maintained a Facebook account. The privacy settings on the account, however, restricted access to his profile, resulting in only the plaintiff’s name, city of residence and profile photograph being accessible to the defendant.

Continue Reading...